Sat. Sep 21st, 2019

“Dropping Earth”… Dangerous SciFi at its finest! And a preview of the Inexperienced New Deal

Visitor smack-down by David Middleton

Humorous factor… The writing of this put up was disrupted by a preview of the Inexperienced New Deal in Dallas over the previous 5 days… Extra on this later.

Dropping Earth: A Current Historical past is a foul science fiction novel by Nathaniel Wealthy of The New York Occasions. It’s apparently an expanded model of a New York Occasions article he wrote. Final week, RealClearEnergy linked to an extract from this e book on The Every day Maverick (regardless of the frack that’s).

Right here’s an abbreviated model of the extract:

OUR BURNING PLANET: BOOK EXTRACT
What failure to reverse local weather change may imply

By Nathaniel Wealthy• 27 Could 2019

By 1979, we knew almost all the pieces we perceive at the moment about local weather change ― together with easy methods to cease it, in response to the e book, Dropping Earth.

[…]

The Every day Maverick

It principally goes on like this:

James Hansen good.IPCC good.Al Gore mega-superhero.Oil firms evil.Orange man unhealthy.Inexperienced New Deal Cultural Revolution NOW!International socialism now, or Earth fries in 12 years!!!

The above isn’t an inventory of precise quotes from the article. It’s my flippant impression of the article … And I’m being beneficiant; this e book extract doesn’t even deserve flippant.

First off, that is past moronic…

What failure to reverse local weather change may imply…

Nathaniel Wealthy

It’s unimaginable to “reverse local weather change” . “Local weather change” is directionless.

If, by local weather change, this “eloquent science historical past” (in response to Barbara Kiser of Nature) means “international warming,” a reversal of the warming we have now skilled since 1978 would imply a return to “The Ice Age Cometh“…

Determine 1. Science Information, March 1, 1975. That 70’s Local weather Present!

A return to That 70’s Local weather Present doesn’t appear to be a superb thought to me. If the serially unsuitable local weather fashions had been even near right, AGW saved us from The Ice Age Cometh…

Determine 2. With out the warming that supposedly can’t be defined by pure processes, we’d nonetheless be bouncing round The Ice Age Cometh!

If, by local weather change, this “eloquent science historical past” is referring to the extra important warming Earth has skilled because the depths of the Little Ice Age, it will be much more catastrophic than any RCP8.5 nightmare.

Nice Famine
Starting within the spring of 1315, chilly climate and torrential rains decimated crops and livestock throughout Europe. Class warfare and political strife destabilized previously affluent nations as hundreds of thousands of individuals starved, setting the stage for the crises of the Late Center Ages. In keeping with reviews, some determined Europeans resorted to cannibalism throughout the so-called Nice Famine, which continued till the early 1320s.

Black Loss of life
Usually thought-about an outbreak of the bubonic plague, which is transmitted by rats and fleas, the Black Loss of life wreaked havoc on Europe, North Africa and Central Asia within the mid-14th century. It killed an estimated 75 million individuals, together with 30 to 60 p.c of Europe’s inhabitants. Some specialists have tied the outbreak to the meals shortages of the Little Ice Age, which purportedly weakened human immune techniques whereas permitting rats to flourish.

Historical past.com

Iceland was one of many hardest hit areas. Sea ice, which at the moment is way to the north, got here down round Iceland. In some years, it was troublesome to deliver a ship ashore wherever alongside the coast. Grain grew to become unimaginable to develop and even hay crops failed. Volcanic eruptions made life even more durable. Iceland misplaced half of its inhabitants throughout the Little Ice Age.

Tax data in Scandinavia present many farms had been destroyed by advancing ice of glaciers and by soften water streams. Travellers in Scotland reported everlasting snow cowl over the Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland at an altitude of about 1200 metres. Within the Alps, the glaciers superior and threatened to bulldozed cities. Ice-dammed lakes burst periodically, destroying tons of of buildings and killing many individuals. As late as 1930 the French Authorities commissioned a report to analyze the specter of the glaciers. They might not have foreseen that human induced international warming was to deal simpler with this downside than any committee ever may.

Environmental Historical past Assets

The Little Ice Age (LIA) was most probably the coldest climatic interval of the Holocene Epoch. In Central Greenland it was roughly the identical temperature because it was throughout the Bølling-Allerød glacial interstadial.

Determine Three. Be aware that that in Central Greenland the Little Ice Age was as chilly because the final Pleistocne glacial interstadial, the Bølling-Allerød.  Older is towards the left.

Simply how a lot local weather change do we have to reverse?

Again to the final Pleistocene glacial stage? Again to the Eemian interglacial? Or additional again than that?

Determine Four. Excessive latitude SST (°C) From benthic foram δ18O (Zachos, et al., 2001) and HadSST3 (Hadley Centre / UEA CRU through http://www.woodfortrees.org) plotted at identical scale, tied at 1950 AD.  Be aware: older is to the left.

The fashionable ~1 °C rise since pre-industrial instances doesn’t get away of the Quaternary Interval noise stage… one other 1 °C rise nonetheless gained’t even get away of the Quaternary Interval noise stage.

If we reverse local weather change again earlier than the Quaternary Interval, I don’t assume that might work out so properly both…

Determine 5. Excessive latitude SST (°C) From benthic foram δ18O.  Humorous how the PETM is usually cited as a nightmarish model of a real-world RCP8.5… Whereas the hotter EECO is a climatic optimum. (Zachos et al., 2001). Be aware: Older is to the correct.

Earth’s common floor temperature is only some levels C above the coldest local weather of all the Cenozoic Period, the Late Pleistocene glacial phases.

Perhaps by “reverse local weather change,” is Mr. Wealthy simply referring to decreasing the atmospheric CO2 stage again all the way down to some imaginary Goldilocks focus?

Determine 6a. Cenozoic CO2 (older towards the correct) Determine 6b. Cenozoic CO2 atmospheric mixing ratio and seawater partial strain.  Discover the massive distinction between atmospheric CO2 and pCO2.  Additionally discover that pCO2 was greater earlier than and after the PETM and that stomata knowledge point out that CO2 was about what it’s at the moment, other than a brief period spike to about 800 ppmv 55.2 Mya.  Speak about settled science! Be aware: Older is to the correct.  Tirpati ought to be Tripati.

What precisely is the Goldilocks CO2 focus?

Determine 7. CO2 by geologic interval. The Cambrian by way of Cretaceous are drawn from Berner and Kothavala, 2001 (GEOCARB), the Tertiary is from Pagani, et al. 2006 (deep sea sediment cores), the Pleistocene is from Lüthi, et al. 2008 (EPICA C Antarctic ice core), the “Anthropocene” is from NOAA-ESRL (Mauna Loa Observatory) and the CO2 hunger is from Ward et al., 2005.

Perhaps he solutions these questions within the e book? I’ll by no means know… as a result of I wouldn’t even test it out of a public library a lot much less buy it. So, let’s transfer on…

As Ken Caldeira, a number one local weather scientist on the Carnegie Establishment for Science in Stanford, California, not too long ago put it:

“We’re more and more shifting from a mode of predicting what’s going to occur to a mode of attempting to clarify what occurred.”

Nathaniel Wealthy

After all “we” are… That’s the results of 30+ years of failed predictions.

Determine eight. Hansen’s fabulously unsuitable 1988 local weather mannequin.  The crimson curve is the 5-yr common of GISTEMP. Situation C is the place people principally undiscover fireplace in 2000.

And your predicitive ability is just not bettering.

Determine 9. HadCRUT4 and UAH 6.Zero plotted on Christy 2016.

So what occurred? The widespread rationalization at the moment considerations the depredations of the fossil gasoline business, which in current many years has dedicated to enjoying the function of villain with comic-book bravado. Between 2000 and 2016, the business spent greater than $2-billion, or 10 instances as a lot as was spent by environmental teams, to defeat local weather change laws. 

Nathaniel Wealthy

I’m sorry… However $2 billion over 17 years (<$120 million/yr) isn’t even a tiny fraction of what environmental activist teams and authorities bureaucracies spend on efforts to destroy prosperity and particular person liberty.

The Pure Assets Protection Council is completely devoted to the destruction of prosperity and particular person liberty within the USA and religiously dedicated to the AGW delusion. Their annual price range ($152 million) is greater than the mixed earnings of the American Enterprise Institute ($75 million), Cato Institute ($37 million), Heartland Institute ($5 million) and Aggressive Enterprise Institute ($eight million).

The Federal authorities p!$$ed away $2 billion each 60 days selling the Gorebal Warming rip-off as not too long ago as 2017.

Determine 10. U.S. Federal spending on Gorebal Warming. GAO

Moreover, the “fossil gasoline business” (singular) not solely doesn’t exist, nevertheless it didn’t trigger this:

Determine 11. Fossil gasoline industries: “You’re welcome.”

International demand for plentiful, inexpensive vitality induced it.

Oil & Fuel and Coal are two very completely different industries… Each of that are important to U.S. vitality dominance, financial prosperity and particular person liberty.

If america had endorsed the proposal broadly supported on the finish of the Eighties — a freezing of carbon emissions, with a discount of 20 by 2005 — warming may have been held to lower than 1.5 levels. A broad worldwide consensus had agreed on a mechanism to realize this: a binding international treaty.

Nathaniel Wealthy

“If america had endorsed the proposal broadly supported on the finish of the Eighties — a freezing of carbon emissions, with a discount of 20 by 2005”… we’d have dedicated financial suicide.

It has been stated that regulating carbon dioxide emissions will make america the cleanest Third World nation on Earth. And whoever controls carbon dioxide emissions will management the world.

Dr. Roy Spencer

And it will have had a Dean Wormer impact on the climate.

Determine 12. “Paris local weather guarantees will cut back temperatures by simply Zero.05°C in 2100” (Bjorn Lomborg)

Zero.05°C is principally…

By 1979, we knew almost all the pieces we perceive at the moment about local weather change…

By 1979, we knew Jack Schist…

The ambiance’s blanketing impact over the earth’s floor has been in comparison with the functioning of a greenhouse.  Brief-wave daylight passes as simply by way of the glass of the greenhouse as by way of the ambiance.  As a result of glass is opaque to the long-wave radiation from the nice and cozy inside of the greenhouse, it hinders the escape of vitality.

As a planet, the earth is just not warming or cooling appreciably on the common, as a result of it loses as a lot radiant vitality because it beneficial properties.

Kolenkow, Robert J., Reid A. Bryson, Douglas B. Carter, R. Keith Julian, Robert A. Muller, Theodore M. Oberlander, Robert P. Sharp & M. Gordon Wolman. Bodily geography at the moment : a portrait of a planet.  Del Mar, Calif. : CRM Books, [1974]. p. 64.

FORECASTING THE FUTURE. We will now attempt to determine if we at the moment are in an interglacial stage, with different glacials to comply with, or if the world has lastly emerged from the Cenozoic Ice Age. In keeping with the Milankovitch idea, fluctuations of radiation of the sort proven in Fig. 16-18 should proceed and due to this fact future glacial phases will proceed. In keeping with the speculation simply described, so long as the North and South Poles retain their current thermally remoted areas, the polar latitudes can be frigid; and because the Arctic Ocean retains oscillating between ice-free and ice-covered states, glacial-interglacial climates will proceed.

Lastly, no matter which idea one subscribes to, so long as we see no elementary change within the late Cenozoic local weather development, and the presence of ice on Greenland and Antarctica signifies that no change has occurred, we will count on that the fluctuations of the previous million years will proceed.

Donn, William L. Meteorology. 4th Version. McGraw-Hill 1975. pp 463-464

Suggestion that altering carbon dioxide content material of the ambiance may very well be a significant factor in local weather change dates from 1861, when it was proposed by British physicist John Tyndall.

[…]

Sadly we can’t estimate precisely modifications of previous CO2 content material of both ambiance or oceans, neither is there any agency quantitative foundation for estimating the the magnitude of drop in carbon dioxide content material essential to set off glaciation.  Furthermore all the idea of an atmospheric greenhouse impact is controversial, for the speed of ocean-atmosphere equalization is unsure.

Dott, Robert H. & Roger L. Batten.  Evolution of the Earth.  McGraw-Hill, Inc.  Second Version 1976.  p. 441.

By 1982, we knew what we all know at the moment… The fashions had been unsuitable…

Determine 13. Exxon 1982.

If there truly is a must quickly cut back carbon emissions…

This might solely be achieved by way of “the depredations of the fossil gasoline” industries and the unleashing of the nuclear energy business.

Determine 14 Fuel kicks @$$, wind breaks even. 
Actual Clear Vitality

If carbon emissions actually had been an existential risk, nearly as extreme because the financial risk of the Inexperienced New Deal Cultural Revolution, then we have to discover a solution to economically seize and sequester the utmost quantity of carbon dioxide. And there is just one means to do that. Seize carbon emissions from coal and pure fuel fired energy crops and use it for enhanced restoration initiatives in outdated oil fields.

OCTOBER 31, 2017
Petra Nova is one in all two carbon seize and sequestration energy crops on the earth

The Petra Nova facility, a coal-fired energy plant positioned close to Houston, Texas, is one in all solely two working energy crops with carbon seize and storage (CCS) on the earth, and it’s the solely such facility in america. The 110 megawatt (MW) Boundary Dam plant in Saskatchewan, Canada, close to the border with North Dakota, is the opposite electrical utility facility utilizing a CCS system.

[…]

Petra Nova’s post-combustion CO2 seize system started operations in January 2017. The 240-megawatt (MW) carbon seize system that was added to Unit eight (654 MW capability) of the prevailing W.A. Parish pulverized coal-fired producing plant receives about 37% of Unit eight’s emissions, that are diverted by way of a flue fuel slipstream. Petra Nova’s carbon-capture system is designed to seize about 90% of the carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) emitted from the flue fuel slipstream, or about 33% of the full emissions from Unit eight. The post-combustion course of is vitality intensive and requires a devoted pure fuel unit to accommodate the vitality necessities of the carbon-capture course of.

The carbon dioxide captured by Petra Nova’s system is then utilized in enhanced oil restoration at close by oil fields. Enhanced oil restoration entails injecting water, chemical substances, or gases (corresponding to carbon dioxide) into oil reservoirs to extend the power of oil to stream to a properly.

By comparability, Kemper had been designed to seize about 65% of the plant’s CO2 utilizing a pre-combustion system. The capital prices related to the Kemper undertaking had been initially estimated at $2.Four billion, or about $Four,100 per kilowatt (kW), however price overruns led to development prices in extra of $7.5 billion (almost $13,000/kW). Petra Nova CCS retrofit prices had been reported to be $1 billion, or $Four,200/kW, and the undertaking was accomplished on price range and on time.

Principal contributor: Kenneth Dubin

US EIA

Determine 15a. The initiation of CO2 injection in a short time boosted oil manufacturing within the WEST RANCH (41-A & 98-A CONS.) unit from about 100 BOPD to Three-Four,000 BOPD. The August-September interval was adversely affected by Hurricane Harvey. Determine 15b. Output is comparatively unchanged.  The best demand happens throughout Could by way of September when temperatures are highest.  Could-Sept 2016: Avg. Temp 82 °F, whole output  7,802,898 MWh.  Could-Sept 2017 Avg. Temp 80 °F, whole output  7,655,403 MWh.   Nameplate capability is about Four,000 MW and carbon seize solely impacts 240 MW; so this shouldn’t be a shock.

The U.S. Division of Vitality estimates that 85 billion barrels of oil may very well be recovered from outdated oil fields by way of CO2 EOR. Whereas, for many fields, CO2 EOR is uneconomic with oil costs beneath $85/bbl, if a drastic discount of CO2 was actually a matter of urgency, slightly little bit of taxpayer cash spent on subsidizing carbon seize storage and utilization (CCSU) would have a a lot better impression on carbon emissions than the entire taxpayers’ cash p!$$ed away on wind and photo voltaic boondoggles.

My preview of the Inexperienced New Deal Cultural Revolution

For the previous three years, I’ve been commuting between Dallas and Houston. My spouse and I and our 11 canines reside in Dallas and I’ve been working in Houston since March 2016. On Sunday, we went out for lunch at a close-by Tex-Mex restaurant earlier than I headed again to Houston. We knew that thunderstorms had been within the forecast, however we weren’t anticipating this…

Excessive Wind, Particles Causes Main Injury in Dallas

By Diana Zoga
Printed Jun 9, 2019

The excessive winds on Sunday afternoon blew out home windows of skyscrapers and took down bushes and site visitors indicators in downtown Dallas.

Town’s workplace of emergency administration stated there have been no reviews of accidents associated to the damaged home windows or downed bushes.

Repairing site visitors indicators can be one of many metropolis’s first priorities, officers stated at a Sunday evening press convention. Repairs can be made first to lights which can be utterly inoperable, whereas lights which can be flashing crimson can be subsequent.

[…]

NBCDFW 5

The storm hit whereas we had been consuming and the ability was shortly knocked out. The winds had been so sturdy that it appeared like footage of a hurricane by way of the restaurant home windows. We needed to await the winds to die down earlier than we may rush dwelling (lower than 1/Four mile away). The drive was harrowing. There have been bushes down all over the place. We had been nervous sick about our “fur infants.” Once we acquired dwelling, we may solely discover 10 of the 11. Our 6-month outdated Corgi pet was lacking… However we discovered her hiding underneath a rest room. We had just a few tiles blown off our roof, one in all which hit the hood of my Jeep and all the pieces on the patio had blown into the pool, together with a glass desk prime (as a substitute of shattering on the patio). A big piece of metallic art work blew off the wall, throughout the pool, and wedged right into a tree proper in between two home windows. Miraculously, no home windows had been damaged. Other than a traumatized Corgi pet, the household was unhurt.

The worst a part of the storm was the ability outage.

Oncor Expects Huge Majority of Clients to Have Energy Wednesday Night time
Dallas says residents with out energy who want refuge from the warmth can discover short-term reduction at libraries and rec facilities
Printed Jun 9, 2019

About 16,000 Oncor clients, most in Dallas County, are nonetheless with out energy in North Texas Wednesday.  Energy has been restored to greater than 330,000 properties and companies.  An Oncor spokeswoman says they count on the huge moajority of energy to be restored by tonight, however that might stretch till tomorrow within the hardest hit areas.

“Excellent now the type of restoration that we’re having to do, it’s essentially the most complicated kinds of outages, as a result of we’re having to reconstruct a whole lot of these distribution equiptment.  So as a substitute of simply you realize displaying up and tunring it on instantly, we’re having to take away the bushes, take away the broken polls, re-dig holes for the polls, re-put within the polls after which restring the traces,” stated Kerry Dunn of Oncor.

At it’s peak, as many as 350,000 clients misplaced energy throughout the Metroplex Sunday — with Dallas County seeing essentially the most outages, in response to Oncor Electrical. Oncor had warned the outage was anticipated to final for a number of days.

“This storm was actually distinctive as a result of we noticed injury akin to one thing we’d see with a tropical storm or a twister. However as a substitute of a small space, we’re seeing a really massive portion of Dallas County with main injury,” stated Oncor spokesperson and meteorologist Jen Myers.

[…]

Crews from 11 states are working across the clock.

[…]

NBCDFW 5

I need to thank Alabama Energy. We had been with out energy from Sunday by way of Wednesday night. On Sunday evening, Oncor crews restored energy to elements of our neighborhood. Then we noticed nobody till Tuesday afternoon, when an Alabama Energy automobile “scouted” our neighborhood. Yesterday, Alabama Energy crews had been within the alley, clearing particles from the ability traces.

4 days of counting on the Solar and batteries for gentle and electrical energy looks like a fairly good preview of the Inexperienced New Deal Cultural Revolution. On prime of that, it pressured me to take an unplanned week of trip from exploring for oil & fuel, to chop up tree limbs with a battery-powered electrical chain noticed. We nonetheless don’t have Web service (the cellphone line caught on fireplace whereas they had been fixing the ability traces and AT&T can’t perceive why that is likely to be an issue). I’m utilizing my sensible cellphone as a sizzling spot… So I nonetheless can’t probe for oil & fuel from dwelling – the connection is just too gradual to remotely entry my workstation. I can’t think about a greater demonstration of the Inexperienced New Deal Cultural Revolution. On prime of that, I wrote most of this put up Sunday morning and scheduled it to be printed Monday morning, figuring I might end it up Sunday evening in Houston. No electrical energy, no oil & fuel exploration and a silenced AGW skeptic… We must always name the Dallas wind storm, Superstorm Alexandria… 😉

Thankfully, it was unseasonably cool for June in Dallas over the previous few days… And, oddly sufficient, the storm seems to have been pushed by sudden cooling…

Dallas-Fort Value confronted its personal kind of excellent storm Sunday.

“We had all the pieces in place — a really unstable ambiance, warmth, humidity — then, in fact, we had the chilly entrance, which cooled us down shortly,” stated Patricia Sanchez, a Nationwide Climate Service meteorologist.

Dallas-Fort Value confronted its personal kind of excellent storm Sunday.
“We had all the pieces in place — a really unstable ambiance, warmth, humidity — then, in fact, we had the chilly entrance, which cooled us down shortly,” stated Patricia Sanchez, a Nationwide Climate Service meteorologist.

[…]

The temperature at DFW Worldwide Airport reached 90 levels earlier than midday, and hovered there till about 2 p.m., in response to the climate service.

Then, because the storm moved by way of the realm accompanied by a chilly entrance, the temperature dropped to 70 in lower than an hour. Because the dry air of the chilly entrance collided with the nice and cozy, moist air already within the space, the humidity plunged from 90% at 1 p.m. to 58% by Three p.m. It’s that mixing of two air lots that may spark violent storm exercise.

The climate service had seen the potential of sturdy storms Sunday morning, when Dallas-Fort Value was warned of an enhanced danger for extreme climate.

[…]

The storm’s silver lining is that decrease temperatures carried by the chilly entrance have made situations extra bearable for the tens of hundreds of individuals with out electrical energy.

Temperatures are anticipated to remain beneath regular within the 80s by way of at the least the center of the week, KXAS-TV (NBC5) meteorologist Grant Johnston stated. Dallas-Fort Value can also be anticipated to remain dry by way of the work week.

Dallas Morning Information

Conclusions

We aren’t “Dropping Earth.” It’s truly bodily unimaginable for us to lose Earth. However, in some unspecified time in the future sooner or later, Earth will in all probability lose us.

Warning: F-bombs! “The planet isn’t going wherever. We’re! We’re goin’ away. Pack your [schist], People, we’re goin’ away. We gained’t go away a lot of a hint both, thank god for that. Perhaps slightly styrofoam, possibly, little styrofoam. Planet’ll be right here and we’ll be lengthy gone. Simply one other failed mutation. Simply one other closed-end organic mistake, an evolutionary cul de sac. The planet will shake us off like a foul case of fleas, a floor nuisance. You wanna understand how the planet’s doin’? Ask these individuals at Pompeii, who had been frozen into place from volcanic ash. How the planet’s doin’. Wanna know if the planet’s alright, ask these individuals in Mexico Metropolis or Armenia, or 100 different locations buried underneath hundreds of tons of earthquake rubble in the event that they really feel like a risk to the planet this week. How about these individuals in Kilauea, Hawaii who constructed their properties proper subsequent to an energetic volcano after which marvel why they’ve lava in the lounge. The planet can be right here for a protracted, lengthy, very long time after we’re gone and it’ll heal itself, it should cleanse itself ’cuz that’s what it does. It’s a self-correcting system. The air and the water will get better, the earth can be renewed, and if it’s true that plastic is just not degradable properly, the planet will merely incorporate plastic into a brand new paradigm: the earth plus plastic. The earth doesn’t share our prejudice in direction of plastic. Plastic got here out of the earth. The earth in all probability sees plastic as simply one other one in all its kids. Might be the one purpose the earth permits us to be spawned from it within the first place: it wished plastic for itself. Didn’t know easy methods to make it, wanted us. Might be the reply to our age-old philosophical query, “Why are we right here?” “Plastic, @$$holes.””

Featured Picture

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References (can be expanded later)

Alley, R.B. 2000. “The Youthful Dryas chilly interval as considered from central Greenland”. Quaternary Science Opinions 19:213-226.

Alley, R.B.. 2004. “GISP2 Ice Core Temperature and Accumulation Knowledge”.
IGBP PAGES/World Knowledge Heart for Paleoclimatology Knowledge Contribution Sequence #2004-Zero13. NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.

Berner, R.A. and Z. Kothavala, 2001. “GEOCARB III: A Revised Mannequin of Atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic Time”. American Journal of Science, v.301, pp.182-204. February 2001.

Pagani, M., J.C. Zachos, Ok.H. Freeman, B. Tipple, and S. Bohaty. 2005. “Marked Decline in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Throughout the Paleogene”. Science, Vol. 309, pp. 600-603, 22 July 2005.

Pearson, P. N. and Palmer, M. R.: Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the previous 60 million years, Nature, 406, 695–699,https://doi.org/10.1038/35021000, 2000.

Royer, et al., 2001. Paleobotanical Proof for Close to Current-Day Ranges of Atmospheric CO2 Throughout A part of the Tertiary. Science 22 June 2001: 2310-2313. DOI:10.112

“The Ice Age Cometh?” Science Information, The Society for Science & the Public , 1 Mar. 1975, www.sciencenews.org/sn-magazine/march-1-1975.

Tripati, A.Ok., C.D. Roberts, and R.A. Eagle. 2009.  “Coupling of CO2 and Ice Sheet Stability Over Main Local weather Transitions of the Final 20 Million Years”.  Science, Vol. 326, pp. 1394 1397, Four December 2009.  DOI: 10.1126/science.1178296

Ward, J.Ok., Harris, J.M., Cerling, T.E., Wiedenhoeft, A., Lott, M.J., Dearing, M.-D., Coltrain, J.B. and Ehleringer, J.R. 2005. “Carbon hunger in glacial bushes recovered from the La Brea tar pits, southern California”. Proceedings of the Nationwide Academy of Sciences, USA102: 690-694.

Zachos, J. C., Pagani, M., Sloan, L. C., Thomas, E. & Billups, Ok. “Developments, rhythms, and aberrations in international local weather 65 Ma to current”. Science 292, 686–-693 (2001).

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